The grape roots are well developed, have a wide adaptability to the soil and can be grown in almost all types of soil.
The soil most suitable for grape growth is sandy loam or light loam with loose soil, moderate porosity, and small bulk density. This type of soil is well ventilated, drained, and has good water retention and fertilizer retention, and it is beneficial for the growth of grape roots. Strong sand permeability, strong air permeability, good drainage, less weeds, light pests and diseases, grape nodule growth, large temperature difference between day and night, favorable nutrient accumulation, but low nutrient content, poor fertilizer retention and retention, high thermal conductivity The temperature increased and the plants in winter and spring were susceptible to freezing injury. Grapes grown on this type of soil often show early maturity, high sugar content but small fruit size.
The soil containing a large amount of gravel and coarse sand is also suitable for viticulture. It not only has good ventilation and drainage, but also has a large temperature difference between day and night, which is conducive to the accumulation of nutrients, which is beneficial to the formation of flower buds and helps to improve the fruit quality.
The viscous soil is the most unfavorable to the grapes because of its poor air permeability, easy water accumulation in the rainy season, suffocation of the roots, promotion of microbial activity, poisoning of the root system, and easy hardening in the event of drought, which is detrimental to the growth of the roots, the shoots and the quality of the grapes.
The depth, moisture content, and groundwater level all affect the distribution of grape roots. The thickness of the soil layer is more than 1 meter, and the texture is good. The distribution of the root system must be deep and wide. The branches and vines grow robustly and have strong resistance to stress.
Too thin the soil surface is not conducive to grape growth. Grape roots grow well in soils with high permeability, moderate moisture, and high oxygen content. The soil water content is preferably 60%-80% of the maximum water holding capacity in the field. Below 30%, the plant will stop growing.
When the soil moisture content drops to 5%, the leaves will wither. The excessive soil moisture will inevitably reduce the air, and the lack of oxygen will produce vulcanization. Hydrogen and other toxic substances inhibit root activity. In severe cases, the root system stops growing and poisoning.
High or low groundwater level is not suitable for grape growth, generally less than 1.5-2 meters. Soil pH also has an effect on grape growth.
PH values are generally 5-7, and the most suitable PH value is 6-6.5. The PH value is lower than 5 or higher than 8 and the grapes do not grow well.
The slope and aspect of the vineyard are also one of the factors affecting the cultivation of viticulture in the mountains. The slope should be less than 200-250. The 50-100 gently sloping land is not only conducive to drainage, but also does not easily accumulate cold air. The light conditions are also superior to the flat land and it is the best plot for growing grapes. In aspect selection, the southern slope is better than the north slope, and the advantages and disadvantages of the east slope and the west slope are between the north and south slopes.