Cold Resistance Ability
Dora Agri is committed to research on improving plant cold resistance ability to help farmers reduce losses caused by cold waves
Cold stress is the main abiotic stress affecting plant yield and quality worldwide. The cold resistance ability of crops refers to the tolerance of crops to low temperatures. It is of positive significance for agricultural production to find out the reasons for the harm of low temperature to crops and the law of cold resistance of crops, and to improve the cold resistance of crops.
The damage of low temperature to crops can be divided into freezing damage and cold damage according to the degree of low temperature and the damage situation.
1. Freeze damage: When the temperature drops below 0 ℃, it will cause freezing inside some crops, causing injury or even death. This phenomenon is called freezing injury.
When the temperature continues to drop or plummets to a very low level, not only the intercellular space of plants will freeze, but also the water in the cells will freeze, and the water in the protoplasm will form small ice crystals, which will directly destroy the structure of protoplasm and do the most serious harm to crops.
2. Cold damage: It refers to the harm of low temperature above 0°C. In short, the low temperature above freezing point causes the physiological obstacles of thermophilic crops, causing crops to be injured or even killed.
The causes of cold damage to crops are complex. The first is to destroy the coordination of protoplasmic structure and metabolism. After the crops are damaged by cold, the respiration often increases, the energy in the body is re-allocated, the heat increases and the high-energy compounds decrease, resulting in a shortage of internal energy and metabolic disorders in the crop body.
How to Improve Crops Cold Resistance Ability
The improvement of cold resistance goes through two stages:
First, try to make plants perform vigorous photosynthesis before winter, and accumulate more “protective substances” (sugars and amino acids, etc.). Increase the content of unsaturated fatty acids in membrane lipids. This is important for preventing the phase transition of the biofilm and stabilizing the membrane structure.
Second, under the stable low-temperature conditions in late autumn, control the field irrigation, so that the plants can carry out the normal dehydration process of the intercellular space and the normal change of the protoplast colloid state, and reduce the free water content in the plant tissue, thereby reducing the possibility of tissue freezing.
Dora Agri found that plant cold resistance ability was related to soluble sugars, membrane phospholipids, proline, especially abscisic acid, and membrane fatty acid unsaturation.
Maintaining the stability of the function and structure of the biofilm system is the basis for maintaining and improving the cold resistance of plants.
Agronomic cultivation methods: In winter, greenhouse cultivation and film mulching are used to increase the temperature and improve the growing environment of crops. Hybrid breeding or genetic engineering can also be used to cultivate varieties with superior cold resistance to reduce the adverse effects of low temperatures.
However, improving agronomic measures is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Cross-breeding has insufficient cold-resistance resources, a long selection cycle, and difficult genetic engineering technology.
A relatively simple way is to use exogenous substances to improve the cold resistance of crops. Exogenous substances mainly include Plant growth regulators, such as abscisic acid, brassinolide, salicylic acid, etc.; Osmoregulation substances, such as soluble sugars, betaine, etc; Inorganic salt ions, such as Ca +, K +, and Biostimulants, such as seaweed extracts, amino acids.
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