The straw decomposing agent can speed up the maturation of the straw and has a significant promotion effect on the improvement of organic matter. This article reviews the principle and application of straw decomposing agents, hoping to provide some reference for promoting the application of biofertilizer series.
The straw decomposing agent is effective in promoting the rapid fermentation of organic matter in the straw, and can convert the organic matter, phosphorus, potassium and other elements contained in the straw into nutrients required during plant growth, and can also produce many microorganisms that are beneficial to plant growth. Stimulate plant production.
Applying fertilizer made from straw to farmland can not only improve the organic matter content in the soil but also improve the resistance of plants and reduce the use of inorganic fertilizers. The principle of the straw decomposing agent is mainly the principle of microbial catabolism of organic matter.
Generally, the straw decomposing agent has different microbial compositions, including yeast, mold, bacteria and bacillus spores. These microorganisms can use straw as the raw material and energy of their metabolism, and convert it into the organic matter needed for plant growth, as well as a large number of elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other trace elements such as calcium, magnesium, manganese, boron and so on, thereby promoting plant growth.
In general, the whole process can be divided into three stages under environmentally appropriate conditions.
1. Initial stage
In the early stage of straw composting, some non-high temperature resistant bacteria mainly decompose some easily degradable organic substances through their metabolism, and at the same time, release energy to increase the temperature. Generally, the heap temperature can be raised from a normal temperature to 50 ° C in 1-2 days. This stage has a lot to do with the moisture content and freshness of the straw.
2. High-temperature stage
As the heat of the reaction is generated, the temperature gradually rises from 5 ° C to 65 ° C. At this time, the microorganisms that are not resistant to high temperatures gradually die, and a large number of high-temperature-resistant organisms begin to grow in large numbers.
These high-temperature resistant microorganisms are microorganisms with a strong ability to decompose cellulose and pectin, so in addition to continuing to decompose the organic plants that are easily decomposed without decomposition, they also decompose organic substances such as cellulose and pectin which are difficult to decompose. When the material that can be decomposed in the straw is basically degraded, high-temperature resistant microorganisms will stop growing due to lack of nutrients, so the compost temperature will gradually decrease. When the temperature of the reactor reached 40 ℃, the reactor formed humus, which was basically stable.
3. Maturation stage
At this stage, the undegraded compost material is further slowly degraded, and the composting process is completed to form a substance similar to the soil humus.
Advantages of Straw Decomposing Agent
First, the nutrient content of the fertilizer piled up with the straw decomposing agent is higher than that of the traditional fermentation method, in which the organic matter content can reach 60%, and the effective nutrient is equivalent to 2 to 3 times of the general soil fertilizer.
Secondly, some phosphorus and potassium bacteria in the decomposing agent can effectively convert the nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium in the straw into the form of nutrients required by the plant, thereby facilitating the absorption of the plant.
Thirdly, through the entire fermentation process, the content of pathogenic bacteria in the soil can be reduced, and the proportion of crop disease occurrence is greatly reduced. At the same time, the high temperature stage in the composting process can kill many pathogenic bacteria and weed seeds.
In addition, composting of straw with a humicidal agent can also stimulate the growth of crops, make the crops grow stronger, and the root system more developed.
Application of Straw Decomposing Agent
1. Site selection
The place of fermentation should be sunny, with high terrain, avoiding air outlets, and close to water sources. Try not to use the cement floor.
2. Preparation of raw materials
Cut the straw into 5-10 cm pieces. Mix the required amount of decomposing agent with some raw materials according to the ratio of 100kg decomposing agent using 1000kg of straw.
3. Operation steps
The straw raw material and the decomposing agent are mixed uniformly and stacked on the site. Generally, the stacking height is 1-1.2 m and the width is 1.5- 2 m. During the composting process, a part of human and animal manure or urea can be added to increase the nutritional content of the fertilizer.
In a word, straw decomposers can effectively promote the compost of straw compost. The application of straw organic fertilizer in farmland can not only improve the soil, increase the content of organic matter and nutrients in the soil, but also effectively save the use of labor, fertilizers, and herbicides, and the income increase effect is significant.
While generating huge economic benefits, straw compost also has very good ecological benefits. It can effectively use agricultural waste straws, avoiding the phenomenon of farmers directly burning straws in the field for a long time, reducing fire risks and reducing Pollution of the atmosphere. The application of preservatives is a good way to turn waste into treasure.
With the development of modern agriculture, decomposing agents will be widely used, and it will play an increasingly important role in promoting the sustainable development of agriculture.