Trichoderma viride is a beneficial microorganism widely distributed in the natural world, with high-efficiency biodegradation and biological control functions. Studies have shown that Trichoderma viride produces a series of hydrolytic enzymes, such as cellulase, chitinase, and lignin peroxidase, which can efficiently degrade organic matter in the environment. At the same time, as common biocontrol microbes in agriculture, it has beneficial functions such as inhibiting pathogenic bacteria, promoting plant growth, and improving soil fertility.
Because of its application potential in biodegradation and biological control, Trichoderma viride has an important position in the field of agricultural production.
Use of Trichoderma Viride in Agriculture
1.Develop Renewable Biological Resources
Trichoderma viride degrades enzymes in the metabolic process, such as cellulase, chitinase, glucanase, and xylanase, etc., which are used to degrade organic matter in crop stalks and provide carbon and nitrogen source for crop growth.
Cellulose is the largest renewable resource on the earth and is widely distributed in nature, but its utilization rate is currently low. Cellulase is a kind of compound hydrolase, mainly composed of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase.
The cellulase produced by Trichoderma viride hydrolyzes plant cellulose into glucose, destroys plant cell walls, and releases nutrients such as protein bodies and starch, thereby eliminating the anti-nutritional effects of starch polysaccharides in plant residues and improving the utilization of plant residues.
If it can be reasonably developed and utilized, it can alleviate the energy crisis, reduce environmental pollution to a certain extent, and produce huge economic and ecological benefits.
2. Bio-control and Growth Promoting Functions
Biological control refers to the use of organisms that are harmless to plants to inhibit pathogenic bacteria to reduce the incidence of diseases.
As a fungus that is widely distributed, grows rapidly, can produce antagonistic substances and parasitic plant pathogenic bacteria, Trichoderma viride has been widely used in the biological control of plant diseases, especially plant soil-borne diseases.
Resistance of Trichoderma viride to pathogenic microorganisms
Trichoderma viride is a broad-spectrum antagonistic microorganism that is widely colonized in plant roots, stems, and leaves. It has strong inhibitory properties against pathogens and can significantly improve plant disease resistance. Its mechanism of action mainly includes competition, bacteriolysis, hyperparasitism, antibiotic production, and induced resistance, etc.
Trichoderma viride is a broad-spectrum antagonistic microorganism that is widely colonized in plant roots, stems, and leaves. It has strong inhibitory properties against pathogens and can significantly improve plant disease resistance. Its mechanism of action mainly includes competition, bacteriolysis, Heavy parasitism, antibiotic production, and induced resistance, etc.
Most fungal cell walls are mainly composed of chitin, β-1,3-glucan, and a small amount of protein and fat. Trichoderma viride secretes a large amount of chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, and other cell wall degradation Enzymes invade the host hyphae cells to absorb their nutrients.
Studies have found that Trichoderma viride has a significant antagonistic effect on Fusarium solani. The inhibition rate of Trichoderma viride on Fusarium solanum rot is 100%. Under the microscope, it can be seen that Trichoderma viride causes the hyphae to break, shrink, and dissolve through entanglement and parasitism.
A large number of experiments have shown that the metabolites of Trichoderma viride have effects on Fusarium moniliforme, Alternaria dauci, Ciboria spp., Botrytis cinerea, and Aureobasidium. Pulluans, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus, and other plant pathogens have obvious antagonistic effects.
In addition, some extracellular proteases in the secondary metabolites of Trichoderma viride also highly inhibit the hatching of root-knot nematode and reduce the incidence of plant diseases and insect pests.
Trichoderma viride induces plant immune system
Induced disease resistance refers to the use of physical, chemical, and biological methods to pretreat plants to enhance their own resistance and change the response of plants to diseases and insect pests.
Trichoderma viride can enhance plant resistance by inducing changes in plant defense enzymes. After being treated with Trichoderma viride, the activity peaks of defense enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase in wheat appeared;
Trichoderma viride can inhibit the polygalacturonase activity of Rhizoctonia glutinosa, cause the accumulation of oligogalacturonic acid anhydride, enhance plant-related resistance metabolism, and stimulate plant defense response.
Promotional effect of Trichoderma viride on plant growth
Studies have pointed out that potatoes, wheat, tobacco, carrots, chrysanthemum, and capsicum have been treated with Trichoderma viride, its seed germination and plant growth have been improved to varying degrees, which are specifically manifested in improving plant seed vigor, germination rate, seedling emergence, root vigor, plant height and plant dry quality.
The use of Pseudomonas, Trichoderma viride, and Trichoderma harzianum can not only effectively control rice sheath blight, but also promote the accumulation of rice biomass. Many strains of the genus Trichoderma can promote the growth of tomatoes, among which Trichoderma viride can significantly promote the growth of tomato total biomass and lateral roots.
The growth-promoting mechanism of Trichoderma viride: It can produce plant growth regulators, which can regulate exogenous plant hormones in two directions; Trichoderma can inhibit or reduce harmful flora around the rhizosphere of plants to produce compounds that have inhibitory effects on crops; wood organic acids, chelating agents, reductases, etc. produced by mold can increase the utilization of nutrients by plants and promote plant growth.